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Fermenter of periodic action (1 — a turbine trskhyarusny mixer, 2 — the cooling coil. 3 — a section shirt. 4 — a reflective partition. 5 - bubbler. P-steam); I \XI \XI \— material and auxiliary pipelines with locking control devices (I — the sowing line. I \supply of sterile compressed air. III \steam supply, IV — removal of the fulfilled air. V \the loading line, VI — the line of introduction of additives, the VII giving, VIII — supply of the washing solution. IX \sampler. X - delivery of a product, XI — delivery in the sewerage through the lower descent).

Important element in a design of a fermenter are heatexchange devices. Application of highly productive strains of bioobjects, the concentrated nutrient mediums, a high specific expense of power on hashing — all these factors affect essential increase of thermal emissions, and for heat removal in a fermenter install external and internal heatexchange devices. Industrial fermenters, as a rule, have section shirts, and in the device — four coils.

The basic constructive element is the mixing device providing high intensity of dissolution of oxygen and high extent of dispergating of gas. At the same time energy is removed by a gas phase in the usual way

Undoubtedly, exceptions are in some cases admissible, for example, when cultivation in deep conditions of some plant cells (suspension culture of a ginseng) is possible, using the fermentative equipment calculated on cultivation, for example, of bacteria or mushrooms.

In case of replacement of any parts or details in the device, greasings and cleanings of knots at maintenance, etc., pollution should not get in bioreactors, to material line lines of communication, to the final products.

The cultures of cages of animals and the person which do not have cellular walls are more vulnerable and exacting to conditions of the existence, than a cell of others and. Therefore the equipment for them can be carried to the category "low-speed", providing the gentle address with bioobjects.

The plant cells having a cellular wall (also as bacteria and mushrooms) grow, breed and develop much more long, than the majority of bacteria and mushrooms, and it introduces certain amendments in hardware registration of the corresponding biotechnological processes.

Bioreactors (fermenters) make a basis of biotechnological production. The mass of the devices used, for example, in microbic biotechnology is various, and requirements are defined by mostly economic reasons here. In relation to fermenters distinguish the following types them: laboratory with a capacity of 0,5 — 100 l, pilot capacity 100l — 10 m3, industrial with a capacity of 10 — 100 m3 and more.